AB BAR AMARA (Ghar)

(ولسوالی سالنگ - AF)
35.245800,69.180000
Grottocenter / carte

Description

Herbert Daniel Gebauer - 06/01/2018

The -Twelve Commanders' [source of] Water Cave- holds three Afghanistan records: It is not only the longest cave (1) of Afghanistan and the cave most frequently mapped by independent caving teams, but also the cave which has been reported with the largest variety of cave names (2). The only known cave entrance lies less than 10 m from the road (3) that climbs to Salang Pass (4), and at a distance of about 100 km along the road (5) from Kabul to Mazar-e Sharif. The nearest village is Nawache Bala (also: Nawace Bala, the -Noach- of WALLACE & WALLACE 1969) near Qalatak (6). Compare the cave in the –>Parwan Valley noted by LORD (1838). CAVE DESCRIPTION: The resurgence cave functions as a master cave, which, fed by young tributaries, drains from the approximate north-west to the left (northern) bank of the gorge of the tumbling Salang River (Darya Salang, Darya-ye Salang, Salang Darra). The main drag forms a more or less horizontal and isolated conduit below a calcite decorated high leve gallery. Upstream splits the main drag splits into two passages shortly before it runs into two sumps. The calcite decorated high level gallery ends in a third sump. The most detailed but yet very condensed description (in French language) of Kafta Khana (7) is found in SIMON (1974: 112, 114), accompanied by cave plan (on page 113) drawn by Daniel Rees upside down –the north-arrow points to the page bottom. SPELEOLOGIE AFGHANE (1975: 8, 11; cave plan on page 9) give a summarising overview (again in French) of -Ghar Ab Bar Amada-. The earliest and most incompetent description of -Table Rock Cave- (note 8) was published by the spelunkers WALLACE & WALLACE (1969: 121-123, cave plan (note 9) on page 122). A joyous description in Italian language of Grotta in Afghanistan is presented by PERTICI (1970, without illustrations). EVALUATION: The essential parts of the accessible cave have formed under phreatic conditions, mostly along lines where bedding planes are met by vertically extensive ectonical fissures. Near the entrance are the passage dimensions enlarged by free (vadose) flow resulting in whirlpools. Speleothems are abundant in the high level but rare in the lower –an impair of distribution possibly aggravated by destructive visitors. The cave floor is generally –but not near the sand dusted sumps– covered with pebbles and rocks rounded by the action of water indicating a considerable flow under wet conditions. PROSPECTS: Upstream the cave deteriorates into several passages terminated by sumps which render the active cave system inaccessible and discourage hopes for substantial cave development. SPELEOLOGIE AFGHANE (1975: 11) states the only way to find unknown continuations is by searching the ceiling, for example by climbing into a chimney at the road junction in the active section of the cave system. gallery. Upstream splits the main drag splits into two passages shortly before it runs into two sumps. The calcite decorated high level gallery ends in a third sump. The most detailed but yet very condensed description (in French language) of Kafta Khana (7) is found in SIMON (1974: 112, 114), accompanied by cave plan (on page 113) drawn by Daniel Rees upside down –the north-arrow points to the page bottom. SPELEOLOGIE AFGHANE (1975: 8, 11; cave plan on page 9) give a summarising overview (again in French) of -Ghar Ab Bar Amada-. The earliest and most incompetent description of -Table Rock Cave- (note 8) was published by the spelunkers WALLACE & WALLACE (1969: 121-123, cave plan (note 9) on page 122). A joyous description in Italian language of Grotta in Afghanistan is presented by PERTICI (1970, without illustrations). EVALUATION: The essential parts of the accessible cave have formed under phreatic conditions, mostly along lines where bedding planes are met by vertically extensive gallery. Upstream splits the main drag splits into two passages shortly before it runs into two sumps. The calcite decorated high level gallery ends in a third sump. The most detailed but yet very condensed description (in French language) of Kafta Khana (7) is found in SIMON (1974: 112, 114), accompanied by cave plan (on page 113) drawn by Daniel Rees upside down –the north-arrow points to the page bottom. SPELEOLOGIE AFGHANE (1975: 8, 11; cave plan on page 9) give a summarising overview (again in French) of -Ghar Ab Bar Amada-. The earliest and most incompetent description of -Table Rock Cave- (note 8) was published by the spelunkers WALLACE & WALLACE (1969: 121-123, cave plan (note 9) on page 122). A joyous description in Italian language of Grotta in Afghanistan is presented by PERTICI (1970, without illustrations). EVALUATION: The essential parts of the accessible cave have formed under phreatic conditions, mostly along lines where bedding planes are met by vertically extensive gallery. Upstream splits the main drag splits into two passages shortly before it runs into two sumps. The calcite decorated high level gallery ends in a third sump. The most detailed but yet very condensed description (in French language) of Kafta Khana (7) is found in SIMON (1974: 112, 114), accompanied by cave plan (on page 113) drawn by Daniel Rees upside down –the north-arrow points to the page bottom. SPELEOLOGIE AFGHANE (1975: 8, 11; cave plan on page 9) give a summarising overview (again in French) of -Ghar Ab Bar Amada-. The earliest and most incompetent description of -Table Rock Cave- (note 8) was published by the spelunkers WALLACE & WALLACE (1969: 121-123, cave plan (note 9) on page 122). A joyous description in Italian language of Grotta in Afghanistan is presented by PERTICI (1970, without illustrations). EVALUATION: The essential parts of the accessible cave have formed under phreatic conditions, mostly along lines where bedding planes are met by vertically extensive gallery. Upstream splits the main drag splits into two passages shortly before it runs into two sumps. The calcite decorated high level gallery ends in a third sump. The most detailed but yet very condensed description (in French language) of Kafta Khana (7) is found in SIMON (1974: 112, 114), accompanied by cave plan (on page 113) drawn by Daniel Rees upside down –the north-arrow points to the page bottom. SPELEOLOGIE AFGHANE (1975: 8, 11; cave plan on page 9) give a summarising overview (again in French) of -Ghar Ab Bar Amada-. The earliest and most incompetent description of -Table Rock Cave- (note 8) was published by the spelunkers WALLACE & WALLACE (1969: 121-123, cave plan (note 9) on page 122). A joyous description in Italian language of Grotta in Afghanistan is presented by PERTICI (1970, without illustrations). EVALUATION: The essential parts of the accessible cave have formed under phreatic conditions, mostly along lines where bedding planes are met by vertically extensive gallery. Upstream splits the main drag splits into two passages shortly before it runs into two sumps. The calcite decorated high level gallery ends in a third sump. The most detailed but yet very condensed description (in French language) of Kafta Khana (7) is found in SIMON (1974: 112, 114), accompanied by cave plan (on page 113) drawn by Daniel Rees upside down –the north-arrow points to the page bottom. SPELEOLOGIE AFGHANE (1975: 8, 11; cave plan on page 9) give a summarising overview (again in French) of -Ghar Ab Bar Amada-. The earliest and most incompetent description of -Table Rock Cave- (note 8) was published by the spelunkers WALLACE & WALLACE (1969: 121-123, cave plan (note 9) on page 122). A joyous description in Italian language of Grotta in Afghanistan is presented by PERTICI (1970, without illustrations). EVALUATION: The essential parts of the accessible cave have formed under phreatic conditions, mostly along lines where bedding planes are met by vertically extensive ectonical fissures. Near the entrance are the passage dimensions enlarged by free (vadose) flow resulting in whirlpools. Speleothems are abundant in the high level but rare in the lower –an impair of distribution possibly aggravated by destructive visitors. The cave floor is generally –but not near the sand dusted sumps– covered with pebbles and rocks rounded by the action of water indicating a considerable flow under wet conditions. PROSPECTS: Upstream the cave deteriorates into several passages terminated by sumps which render the active cave system inaccessible and discourage hopes for substantial cave development. SPELEOLOGIE AFGHANE (1975: 11) states the only way to find unknown continuations is by searching the ceiling, for example by climbing into a chimney at the road junction in the active section of the cave system.

Documents

Bibliography 06/01/2018

Histoire

EXPLORATION HISTORY: 1837 October / November: Dr. LORD (1838: 530) and Lieutenant Robert Leech of the Bombay Engineers, with Lieutenant John Wood of the Indian Navy, left Kabul in the middle of October 1837 for the plains of Koh Daman the passes of the Hindukush leading into Badakshan (HOLDICH 1910 reproduced 2002: 412). LORD (1838: 530) recorded numerous and large natural cavities from the upper part of the Parwan Valley or Sar Alang (Salang), the Sauleh Oolong of ELPHINSTONE (1819). 1967: John and Yolanda Wallace, Hal Greeney, Lorne Heuckroth, Joyce Heuckroth and Joan Fortune explored and mapped most of the cave in the course of two weekend excursions (WALLACE & WALLACE 1969). 1969 (?): Delia PERTICI (1970) in company with a certain Giorgio and a Vittoria who was inseperable from her photo camera and never has been caving before, visited, poked around, got wet, and had a memorable day. 1974 July: Christian Simon & Anne Simon, Christian Gabariau and Bertrand Terrillon of 'A.R.I.A.S' (Association de Recherches Internationales Archéologiques et Spéléologiques, Rouen) surveyed in their 'grotte de Kafta (sic! for: Kaftar) Khana' 1140 m of cave passages (SIMON 1974: 112-114; CHABERT & UBACH 1975, 1978). 1974 September: Daniel Rees draws the cave plan of 'Kafta Khana' (in SIMON 1974: 113). 1975: Claude Chabert, Montserrat Ubach and friends pushed the passage length of the cave, now called Ab Bar Amada, to a total of 1220 m (CHABERT & UBACH 1975, 1978; COURBON et al. 1986: 69; COURBON et al. 1989: 121; JUBERTHIE & DECU 2001: 1744; SPELEOLOGIE AFGHANE 1975: 9). Herbert Daniel Gebauer - 06/01/2018

Cavités proche

Distance (km)NomLongueur (m)Profondeur (m)
1.3P. K. 103.2, Salang (Grotte du)
1.3KAFTAR KHANA (Chabert 1975) (Ghar)
1.3P. K. 102.1, Salang (Grotte du)
1.3CANYON 1, Salang (Grotte du)
1.3CANYON 2, Salang (Grotte du)
1.3CANYON 3, Salang (Grotte du)
1.3Salang (Grotte-résurgence de la)
1.3JON (Ghar i)
1.3HOTEL, Salang (Grotte de la)